Criminal Justice Employment Opportunities: Help Fight Against Enemy Dangers By Having A Criminal Justice Career

Fairly recently our country experienced a greater dependence on criminal justice and homeland safety professionals. Following September 11, 2001, increased security at federal complexes, and state level and city government agencies have established a massive surge in criminal justice and homeland security career options.

The primary job connected with homeland safety workers is to prevent enemy activities within the U.S. Created after the September 11 attacks and set up in early 2003, the Department of Homeland Security is accountable for national boundaries and transportation stability, emergency readiness, information evaluation, and national infrastructure stability.

A Threatening World Leads to Career Opportunities

Responding to the dependence on more qualified people, online and campus higher education diploma programs have attended to this requirement and currently offer criminal justice diplomas and homeland safety degrees.

The marketplace is right for individuals wanting to make a career adjustment to the challenging service of criminal justice. Criminal justice careers offer a wide spectrum of work options and the field is growing each day.

The job choices in these fields have gone up in numbers, as have their salaries. You will discover many jobs to consider with the pursuit of a criminal justice degree.

Federal Government Administration Roles

Transportation Security Administration is one – a quickly developing sector where the worker needs are growing rapidly. These kinds of employment opportunities do not need a college diploma, though having one assists in career placement.

The only solution to enhance your position in this industry however, is to possess an associate’s degree or better. As outlined by the Bureau of Labor statistics, the average beginning pay is a bit beneath $40k.

The Bureau of Diplomatic Security hires agents for U.S. law administration. These occupations definitely involve a college education. Beginning incomes are in the $32,000 range and could be as high as $46,000. The total amount may differ according to training, the type of work given, and a person’s degree of working experience.

Specifications and Pay

Law enforcement careers at the state and federal government level normally have to have a college degree. The average salary in this sector of criminal justice is somewhat more than $50,000. Local law enforcement agencies do not generally demand college diplomas; nevertheless the prospect of pay increases is seriously limited for people who have not earned one.

Criminal Justice and Technological know-how

The progress of technology used in criminal justice and homeland safety measures has even led to a niche for specially educated staff. Trained workers are important for the fight against both computer and biological risks to our nation.

In this discipline of high specialization, a college diploma is not always adequate. A candidate will need specialized instruction in addition to a higher education degree to meet the requirements for these fields. Continuing schooling is essential to earning promotions in criminal justice in addition to various other professions.

The regrettable ongoing international risks in opposition to the USA will continue to keep the growth rate of criminal justice occupations and homeland safety constant. Aided by the right training for your desired work, you will be competent to assist your local community and the country in a job of criminal justice.

An Introduction To Night Vision: Night Owl Night Vision Binoculars Nob5x

Night Vision Devices enable night time or ‘after dark’ viewing; and were initially developed by the US Government for US Military personnel. Eventually these devices also proved extremely useful within other industries: US Law Enforcement, Security, Private Investigation, Photography, and Hunting. Technology advances and the development of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th generation technologies have made those original devices (1st Generation) affordable for general outdoor enthusiasts. Hence, these 1st generation devices have become more and more popular amongst the general consumer community. This article reviews Night Owl Optics’ NOB5X Night Vision Binoculars, a 1st Generation Night Vision Instrument.

Specifications-Night Owl Optics is a leading manufacturer of affordable, high quality, night vision binoculars, monoculars, and goggles. The NOB5X provides 5X magnification, a 50mm objective diameter, a 53 ft. field of view at 100 yards, and weighs 39 oz. The NOB5X is an ‘image enhancement’ device that is powered by a 3 volt lithium battery. Image enhancement works by amplifying small amounts of light, via an infrared illuminator (IR), and then reproducing it so that it displays on a green phosphorous screen. The IR is invisible to both human and animal eyes.

The NOB5X is easy to focus. With the help of the instruction manual, it probably takes about 30 seconds to set the focus for any user. Once set, the binocular becomes in essence a fixed focus (FF) binocular; meaning you don’t have to re-set it unless you are changing users. Be sure to always focus the instrument indoors, and with the lens caps ON.

The performance of the NOBX5, like all other 1st generation instruments, varies depending on lighting conditions. One misconception people have around night vision is that they work in complete darkness. Without the IR, you would not be able to view anything in complete darkness. I tested the NOB5X under a clear New Jersey sky with a half-moon above, and was able to view a deer from over 100 yards away without the IR. I found the IR button to be very accessible, and was able to recognize the deer in much more detail from the same distance when employing the IR. Later on I was able to clearly site a raccoon in a wooded area from about 80 yards away with the IR turned on.

The image quality of the NOB5X is excellent. Having already used other 1st generation devices by Yukon and Bushnell, I would rank the NOB5X higher than both from an image quality perspective. Another misconception people have about Night Vision Binoculars is that they function very similarly to day time binoculars. This is NOT TRUE. The image seen on the phosphorus screen is reproduced, and therefore not as clear as the image seen through day time binoculars. Image sharpness is also not consistent across the entire field of view of night vision binoculars. However, the amount of distortion I found around the edges of the NOB5X image was pretty reasonable, and not at all distracting from a user’s perspective.

The NOB5X comes with a comfortably fitting neck strap that made me forget I had nearly 40 oz around my neck; and also fits nicely into a durable canvas carrying case. The NOB5X costs less than $500 at most on-line stores, and about $20 more at your local sporting goods store . For that very reasonable price, you get a durable, high performing, night vision binocular that hunters and outdoorsmen will certainly enjoy.

Gps Tracking Takes A Draconian Turn Thanks To Us Court Decision

Imagine a society where law enforcement authorities have free reign in listening to people’s conversations, watching every move, and recording where and when a person goes to – without any knowledge they are being monitored and tracked at all. Sounds eerie, doesn’t it? Well, this draconic ‘Big Brother’ scenario might not be a remote possibility right now following a recent decision by the California Federal Court of Appeals to uphold unwarranted use of GPS tracking devices by federal agents on a drug conviction case.

The defendant in question was Juan Pineda-Moreno was convicted of drug trafficking after federal agents allegedly placed hidden GPS trackers on his Jeep even without an issued search warrant to do so. Pineda-Moreno appealed to the Federal Court but was rejected on grounds that the agents placed these GPS tracking devices when the vehicle was on public property.

Why should you, an ordinary law-abiding citizen, be concerned about developments from this seemingly isolated case? For one thing, this incident is a direct violation of the 4th Amendment of the US Constitution — the only firewall people have against warrantless use of GPS tracking devices by police, federal agents and other government authorities.

What this simply means for you is that the police cannot just go out and place any type of hidden tracker on your vehicle or property without a warrant or without you knowing about it. Imagine the implications it would have on you should law enforcement officials or private investigators have free access to your vehicles just because it was parked on public property. That would be a total invasion of your privacy, a thing that many people are trying to protect in a world where spy-like tools are available in the market – and at wholesale prices!

The only way to combat technology is to counter it with the same technology – through the use of GPS jammers. Whether the courts uphold the 4th Amendment or not in relation to the use of warrantless GPS tracking devices nothing can stop a person from ordering and buying a GPS tracker, throw it into your car, then track and record where you are going – all without your knowledge.

Although the purchase of GPS jammers is still restricted within the United States, anyone can order these devices from international wholesale suppliers and get them the next day. However, you should practice discretion if you should decide on importing a GPS jammer from one of these international wholesalers. It would be best to learn any stipulations or restrictions in your own locality – before making any decision to purchase.

In the meantime, civic rights groups continue their appeal on US courts to totally reject unwarranted use of GPS tracking devices by private parties and law enforcement agencies. They are very adamant in restricting use of GPS tracking devices by law enforcement authorities to track people only after obtaining a valid search warrant for a judge.

Law Enforcement Information

Law enforcement are members of different agencies who are committed to upholding and enforcing the laws we live by. Some members work in local settings, while others work to enforce national laws. Often, the workers are a big component in punishing and convicting those who commit a crime. They work day-in and day-out to ensure that the streets are safe and the criminals are put behind bars.

There are generally two goals that law enforcement officials are seeking: prevention and enforcement. The first goal, prevention, can be particularly difficult. Officials must work extremely hard to prevent occurrences of crimes. For instance, police officers will regularly patrol an area in an attempt to keep crime from happening there. They make their presence known. In a way it is a message to criminals that lets them know they are being watched and criminal behavior will not be tolerated. The second goal, enforcement, can also be just as difficult. Officials have the unique assignment to punish people for committing a crime. They must assign a form of punishment that fits the crime. Not only that, but must also seek rehabilitation for the criminal whenever possible.

Today, law enforcement jobs can be found on all kinds of levels. For example, there are local police throughout the nation. They are there to protect the rights of citizens in specified jurisdictions. Then, there are states and federal law professionals. These professionals work to apprehend suspects after they find sufficient evidence of wrongdoing. The Federal Bureau of Investigation, for instance, is a federal agency. They have enforcement officials who work to enforce federal laws. Members of state and federal penal systems are also considered law enforcement officials. They manage different aspects of containment and punishment of criminals. Along with that, other law enforcement professionals include: probation officers, judges, and district attorneys.

Although law enforcement is a broad term, everyone working in it is working towards the same goal. They work to enforce laws, protect the people, and prevent crime. There are officials all over the world that are performing duties that range from trainee to advanced enforcement. Some might be investigators, while others are managers or directors. Despite their positions, they are still required to work within their jurisdictions, the rules of their job, and the law. Not only are citizens required to follow the law, but law enforcement officials must follow the rules too.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/4931767

Law Enforcement Degree – Why Going Online is Becoming SO Popular

Are you considering a law enforcement degree? Are you interested in becoming:

o Police officer
o Detective
o FBI Agent
o DEA Agent
o U.S. Marshal
o Department of Homeland security officer
o U.S. Secret Service agent

If any of these law enforcement careers seem interesting and sound like something you would like to pursue, consider a law enforcement degree as this will lead you one step closer to your perfect career.

Law Enforcement Degree Programs – What are they like?

As our world becomes more complex and technically advance, so is the demand on more highly trained individuals. As in any other career, law enforcement careers today require more and more education training from prospective applicants.

Most positions within this field require an associate’s degree, bachelor’s or even master’s degree, usually in criminal justice. Not only will a higher level of education, such as a bachelor, masters or doctorate degree, lead to greater salary but also to more job opportunities and career advancement choices.

Law enforcement degree programs will train you for a wide spectrum of skills, allowing for a wide range of career options. You will learn about the court and judicial system, police procedures and policies, prison systems, rehabilitation and control of prisoners.

Law Enforcement Courses/Curriculum

Aside from the study of law and the legal system, courses focus on accounting, business finance, computer science as well as physical education to promote fitness and performance on the job. Foreign language fluency is important for federal employment.

In a law enforcement training program you will be exposed to courses in criminal justice, police administration, police management, police organization, criminal law, criminal procedures, crime scene investigation, interviewing and interrogation, criminal counseling, juvenile delinquency, pubic safety – to name a few.

As you can see from the long list of courses offered, law enforcement is becoming a popular and fast growing field. As a result, colleges and universities offering training in this area are able to provide many courses to choose from. By exploring all your options within this degree program, you can pinpoint your strengths, areas of interest and design your ideal future career. You can do so much with a law enforcement degree – make sure you find out what works best for YOU.

Online Law Enforcement Degree Programs

Online education is on the raise so it’s not surprising that most online colleges and universities also offer law enforcement training. Online degree programs give you the freedom from attending regularly scheduled classes and allow you to go to school while working full time and managing a family. They are becoming very popular as they are a way to advance your career while keeping your current job. Many employers will pay their employees to go back to school, online.

There are so many online schools offering law enforcement online degree programs, how are you to choose one? The best approach is to select a few, request information and research, read about their programs and courses offered as well as class/degree requirements. Some schools offer complete online degree programs, others require some in class time. Find out all the details before signing on to a program, be it an online associate, bachelor or online master degree law enforcement program. When researching schools, in addition to program details, try to find out faculty qualifications as well as the percentage of students that graduate and find jobs upon graduation.

Law Enforcement Careers

The primary goal of all law enforcement professionals is to protect individuals within their jurisdiction. With this career you could work as a state or federal agent, police officers, inspector, sheriff or detective. There are many opportunities for specialization within this field and the list of job titles is extensive.

Police officers are usually employed at a local level and perform task such as traffic control, regular patrols, investigation of theft and assault as well as community policing.

Detectives and Investigators specialize in one area of crime and are assigned cases within that area. Their primary role is to collect evidence, conduct interviews, and examine records all leading to crime solution, arrest and prosecution.

Federal agents are employed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and perform investigations of all types of crimes. The list of task and job opportunities is extensive. Spend some time reading and researching all the opportunities and educational requirements before choosing an area to specialize in within the law enforcement filed.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/1576052

Weird Laws In The Usa

Some men send forth gloomy vibrations, which you feel when you come in contact with them. Most of their clients come to them to solve a single problem and therefore represent a single transaction with little or no repeat business.

These mind frames are ever changing. Some students who may have been a puker during Civil Procedure may have be a Zen during criminal procedure. The Shark in Constitutional Law may have be a puker during Evidence along with the majority of the class.
A second weird Michael related to automobiles is when you can buy one. It is illegal for a car dealership to be open on Sunday. Residents of New Jersey should refrain from purchasing a car on Sunday, wait until Monday when the dealership is allowed to be open.
Anybody who is already in the police force knows that it is passing a law enforcement test that will welcome you into the profession. In fact, it is one of the most in demand and most important jobs in the world so it is only fair to give rigorous tests that will separate the good from the best.
The written part of the law enforcement test consists of punctuation, spelling, grammatical and writing skills. An aspiring police officer must also pass the oral exam given by a panel of interviewers usually made up of three to five police officers.
Many people imagine years of training at a stuffy law school before reaching the position of lawyer. While that is still an option for those who want to go that route, there is another more enlightening and convenient choice for the rest of usan online law degree. These online law degree programs include such things as law and public policy, a Juris Doctor program for practicing law, a bachelor’s degree in legal studies, a master’s of science degree in criminal justice, managerial law, health law and human resources law just to name a few.
He focused his attention on acquiring this dream every waking moment. He created his financial fortune by underhanded dealings in the stock market before it was regulated. He associated with the elite and backed the winning politicians, regardless of their views, to secure a position of power. To remain in good standing with this powerful majority, he encouraged his sons to enlist in a war to which he was opposed. The ultimate prestige, having his son win the Presidency, was his greatest dream. He attracted this desire with the power of his will, fierce determination and a few huge donations to the powerful and persuasive mob.
Weird laws are everywhere. Every country, every state, and every city will have some bizarre laws on the books. What follows below are some of the strangest laws in the State of Missouri. This list is by no means comprehensive and it only scratches the surfaces of all the odd laws in the country, but regardless, these laws are amusing and interesting to read through.
We all do the best that we can at the time in whatever situation that we find ourselves. Therefore, my observations in this article are in no way directed at or a comment about the personal choices that anyone makes in their own life. I am not privy to another person’s situation, history, fears, needs or dreams.

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Whether you’re looking to find an old friend from school, military buddy, lost love, or anyone else, People Search USA has you covered. Here is the largest people finder for the world searching over 500 million records. Find people fast with our free Directory Enquiry listings or subscribe to access premium records including Electoral Rolls from 2002 to 2007, Director Reports, and Birth and Marriage Certificates.
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Most comprehensive and powerful People Search USA engine. Get address, phone number, criminal records, background checks and more on people around you instantly. You can search for your subject’s last reported addres and ten to fifteen year address history as well as an extensive report information. Locate the person your are looking for today! We have many types of person search services. Mostly focuses on missing children, but also includes information about FBI missing persons/kidnapping lists and other databases. Find out the loved one fast and easily. At this site, we understand the importance of finding the right information through a People Search USA. Whether you’re trying to locate a long-lost friend, hire the right person, or learn more about a potential business partner, it’s vital that you have access to all information that’s publicly available. By using the simple People Search USA form, you will be referred to a site where you can get a People Search USA summary of available information about the person you’re researching.

The 5 Laws Of Law Enforcement Training

Listen up, if you are a tactical officer, you must look the part as much as you act it. Having a great shot with your pistol will only get you so far and there will be scenarios in which you’ll need to learn to use your physical attributes. When that time comes, you better be primed and ready for battle, bottom line. With all else held equal, the more fit officer will be superior. I’ve had the pleasure of working with the Lexington, KY Emergency Response Unit, a team that finished 3rd in the World S.W.A.T. Games (www.originalswat.com)! Talk about a bad a** group of guys who can raise the bar. They took every training session to the next level and there was never a dull moment. They were a team that knew how to work together and it showed. My success training them and further study has led me to develop 5 critical points that every officer should follow. 1. Dynamic Flexibility Warm-up Grumble, grumble. I hear the cries that big law enforcement men don’t need any kind of flexibility. If you aren’t familiar, dynamic flexibility has pretty much become the standard warm-up protocol in the fitness industry. Why? Dynamic flexibility is a series of active stretches, rather than the classic “sit and hold”. You’ll gain movement in ‘stiff’ joints and learn to stabilize the necessary joints. This is important for the law enforcement officer because it keeps their body in proper alignment. As much as some officers drive around to, it’s essential that proper posture and alignment be restored after extended periods of inactivity. At the drop a hat, danger can approach and the prepared officer will be prepared to react—without having to roll the shoulders and stretch the hammies. This warm-up also facilitates optimal movement patterns that help maximize the efficiency of the workout. Don’t be a washed-up has-been who used to be great in the field, make sure you take care of the important aspects of your body especially as you age. 2. Do not Bodybuild Before I get into this, I understand many police officers are recreational bodybuilders who actually compete. That is fine, and having been on stage myself I fully endorse this. However, if we ask ourselves, “what will be most beneficial for the job’s requirements?”, we can quickly see how body part training can flat out suck. I cannot stress the importance of being able to manage your bodyweight—chin ups, push ups, various single leg squats are just starters. When you are in the field the ability to handle yourself will dictate your performance in critical times—not your ability to lie on your back and press a weight. Will you be able to handle yourself or be some wimp who’s only good with machines? Most bodybuilding exercises are predominately done in the sagittal plane. In addition, there isn’t going to be many opportunities to shoulder press a criminal, save the bodyslam. The elite police officer needs to be strong in all three planes of motion. There are a number of ways to go about this that do not involve BOSU Balls and bands. A great start would be the addition of single legwork to your lower body days—single leg squats, Bulgarian split squats, and various lunges. When you do upper body days, try doing a simple standing single-arm shoulder press; this forces the contralateral side to resist rotation, thus strengthening the transverse and frontal plane. Then try it with a kettlebell or small sandbag. The idea of being strong all over lends itself to the next bullet too. 3. Odd Object Training There is some aura of odd object training that just screams TESTOSTERONE. What’s more satisfying to the Alpha Officer than keg tosses or sandbag carries? The beauty of the odd object training is first and foremost the instability of the tools used. They require unequal loading across the body in various proportions and in no predictable way. For instance, the sandbag is rarely ever in the same position or carried the exact same way, so the cumbersome nature of it helps strengthen in multiple planes. For a police officer in the real world, odd object has another unparalleled benefit. Under load of a dummy, sandbag, or sled drag you will experience a huge oxygen deprivation (cardio effect) while still toting around extremely heavy weights (strength effect). This combination of strength and cardiovascular activity rolled into one has an accelerative effect on altering body composition. On top of that, you adapt to performing under local muscular fatigue; meaning when you are out of breath, under load, and muscles burning you will learn to push through. This is instrumental in enabling tired officers to move efficiently even when loaded up with their gear. Remember, fatigue masks fitness, so learn not just to work, but perform while exhausted. I cannot stress the importance of utilizing odd objects such as kettlebells, dummies, sandbags, sleds, and sledgehammers among many others. 4. Performance Under Fatigue Fact: mental acuity and cognition can significantly break down with fatigue. It is imperative to retain the ability to perform critical and technical skills under fatigue. Have you ever ran a distance and attempted to have a steady aim? If you have, I’m sure you noticed the fatigue. There are a couple of ways to go about this and some are more practical than others. You can attempt to actually shoot your gun after an obstacle course or some fatiguing task. This is probably only an option if you have an obstacle course built near a shooting range. In more recreational settings it could be beneficial to assume a shooting position, either knee or lying, and attempt to steady your breathing in a effort to control unwanted motion in your arms and torso immediately after finishing a set. Other options include highly challenging stability exercises (no, not the BOSU). The need for stability will naturally alter your breathing patterns and one can quickly learn how to gain control. Let’s say it’s a blistering hot day and you just finished a 60 yd heavy sled drag. The first thing on your mind is going to be laying on the bed of the truck trying to gasp for breath, but you should have a partner ask you a few simple math problems to see how well you can concentrate under fatigue. I’m not saying to join the mathlete team, but little tests of aptitude such as this can create greater clarity in real world situations. In a nutshell, learn to be proficient at both mental and physical tasks when under extreme fatigue and you’ll excel in the community or city you serve. 5. Cooperative Training One aspect of training I slightly allude to is having a partner for this or that. Cooperative training, either with a partner or team, should be the foundation of your training. It’s a police force. A military unit. You’re not James Bond or some secret assassin. Tactical officers should train together because they will be working together in the field. The officers that work together will continually make more significant progress that those who don’t. When one or more of the team is having an off day, there will be someone there to pick them up. This favor will be later reciprocated when another person sets the bar for the rest to emulate. Beyond training together, actually be accountable to someone else. Some people have the motivation to stick to a specific plan and reach their goals, but others need the accountability factor and owning up to another person can provide that. If none of the others, follow this tip because some of the others will fall into place naturally, but nothing can take the place of great lifting partners. Published at: https://www.isnare.com/?aid=242072&ca=Sports

Law Enforcement Test

Anybody who is already in the police force knows that it is passing a law enforcement test that will welcome you into the profession. In fact, it is one of the most in demand and most important jobs in world so it is only fair to give rigorous tests that will separate the good from the best. A good law enforcement test helps agencies hire only the best and the most fit to carry on the duties of law enforcement. This is used by counties, cities and states nationwide when hiring people to fill in the ranks of their police force. The written part of the law enforcement test consists of punctuation, spelling, grammatical and writing skills. An aspiring police officer must also pass the oral exam given by a panel of interviewers usually made up of three to five police officers. Some of the subjects that you will be tested on are reading and understanding comprehension, memory recall, written and oral communication skills, judgment, reasoning and analytical skills and understanding oral information. For one to pass the law enforcement test, he or she must condition the mind as if they are already a police officer. Confidence is also vital in making it since this is a trait required from police officers, especially in apprehending lawless elements. One has to be abreast with the law, judicial processes and other important knowledge that an officer must posses. During the oral interview, it is important that you are presentable and appear in a business suit. Stay calm and focused during the interview process. Other areas that you will be tested will be memory recall, math, judgment and reasoning directional map reading, and reading comprehension. You must also pass the psychological test, polygraph test, physical assessment test, oral board review, and background check. To be prepared for the law enforcement test, it is advised that you undergo police practice tests to polish your communication skills. Know what you are getting yourself into since a career in law enforcement is coupled with a higher calling of responsibility. It s also one of the most coveted professions in the world so expect that the competition will be tougher as the years go by. Do not leave your future in law enforcement entirely up to chance. Improve your opportunities in becoming a police officer by taking practice tests, studying hard and training your mind to become more attentive to details. Although being academically equipped is a good thing, it is not a guarantee that you will pass the law enforcement test. Having a good sense, street smarts and great instinct is an added bonus for you as well. So what are you waiting for? Brush up on your skills and become part of one of the elite professions in the world. Pass the law enforcement test with ease by undergoing practice tests, researching on the internet for additional tips and looking for the best study guide while preparing for it. Remember, it is still you who will make the difference so invest wisely when it comes to your time and study habits. Published at: https://www.isnare.com/?aid=824773&ca=Career

History of Law Enforcement

Though the idea of defending oneself physically has been around since nearly the dawn of time, organized law enforcement is a relatively new idea. As self defense evolved, it became defined by several disciplined forms, such as martial arts. Though it is an excellent idea for everyone to be trained in some form of physical self defense, and to carry self defense products like stun guns or pepper spray to defend themselves against any violent or dangerous situation, of course today there are also organized law enforcement agencies which exist to make self defense less necessary. Though it is still imperative to do what you can to protect yourself, various organizations, from a neighborhood watch to a police officer who frequently patrols your neighborhood, can keep your home and your family safe. The first law enforcement agencies existed not so much to protect citizens from criminals but to maintain leadership. Forces to maintain the status quo existed as far back as ancient Egypt, when pharaohs had their own personal staff of soldiers. Nearly any society throughout history with a military hierarchy has had some form of law enforcement agency. The Roman Empire is frequently noted for its effective yet brutal form of law enforcement. In Europe, law enforcement policies can be traced back to more than a millennium ago. London is thought to be the first city to hire paid law enforcement officers, back in 1663. These officers were mainly meant to find and detain criminals after the fact. In 1800, Glasgow, Scotland, established the first professional police department tasked with preventive policing. The first civil (rather than military) police force was established in the United Kingdom by Parliament in 1829. This model is used by numerous countries, including the United States, to the present day. Throughout the mid-1800s, several police departments were founded around the world. Within the United States, the early years can be described as somewhat lawless. Stronger members of the communities were responsible for policing themselves and their neighbors, though there was no police structure in place. Once the colonists were settled in, the task of maintaining order fell to Justices of the Peace, who were responsible for dealing with criminal elements. As the towns and cities of the New World grew, it became clear that this system was simply not organized enough. Organized law enforcement can be traced back to the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, when night watch forces were established throughout the colonies. Philadelphia finally organized an independent police squad in 1833, policing the area 24/7. Another early full-time police force in the United States was the Boston Police Department, established in 1839. New York’s police force was established in 1844. Though these organizations worked well in the relatively well established Eastern cities, in the frontier towns, a sheriff system developed. This system, also inherited from England, placed a sheriff selected by the local population in charge of law enforcement. Relatively unregulated in early times, the sheriff system still exists to this day, though on a much more formal basis. Today, law enforcement agencies worldwide are highly specialized organizations with extensive training to prepare officers for an astounding variety of situations. Still, they can’t be there for all situations, which is why it is important to protect yourself with a stun gun, baton, or pepper spray canister. Published at: https://www.isnare.com/?aid=469157&ca=Legal